Contemporary Language Motivation Theory: 60 Years Since Gardner and Lambert (1959)

Edited by: Ali H. Al-Hoorie, Peter D. MacIntyre

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Multilingual Matters
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This book brings together contributions from the leaders of the language learning motivation field. The varied chapters demonstrate how Gardner's work remains integral to a diverse range of contemporary theoretical issues underlying the psychology of language, even today, 60 years after the publication of Gardner and Lambert's seminal 1959 paper. The chapters cover a wide selection of topics related to applied linguistics, second language acquisition, social psychology, sociology, methodology and historical issues. The book advances thinking on cutting-edge topics in these diverse areas, providing a wealth of information for both students and established scholars that show the continuing and future importance of Gardner and Lambert's ideas.

This book highlights how Robert Gardner's seminal work has influenced the research of an array of scholars who, through diverse, rigourous methods, have developed their own important lines of inquiry on topics such as identity, acculturation, emotions, and well-being, culminating in a unique perspective on the social psychology of language and intergroup relations.

Kimberly A. Noels, University of Alberta, Canada

Anyone seeking an up-to-date assessment of sixty years of motivation research since Gardner and Lambert's (1959) ground-breaking proposal for a social-educational model will find in this volume a treasure trove of theoretical, empirical, and methodological insights, made all the richer by critical, dialogic engagement alongside personal reminiscences by top researchers in the field.

Heidi Byrnes, Georgetown University, USA

This book is highly recommended for anyone interested in learning more about Robert Gardner himself and his personal relationship with some of the renowned authors in this book as well as the significant ways Gardner has made an impact in their personal and professional lives. It is my opinion that this book has the potential to push the field of language learning motivation forward

LINGUIST List 31.1737

The an impressive tribute to a pioneer in the ever-expanding and developing fields of L2 learning
motivation and social psychology of language learning.

JALT Journal, 42.2, Nov 2020

Ali H. Al-Hoorie is an Assistant Professor at the English Language Institute, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia. He completed his PhD at the University of Nottingham under the supervision of Professors Zoltán Dörnyei and Norbert Schmitt. His publications have appeared in a number of journals, and he is the co-author (with Phil Hiver) of Research Methods for Complexity Theory in Applied Linguistics (Multilingual Matters, 2020).

Peter D. MacIntyre is Professor of Psychology at Cape Breton University, Canada. His research examines emotion, motivation and cognition across a variety of types of behavior, including interpersonal communication, public speaking, dynamic systems, and learning. He has published several books, including Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning (co-edited with Zoltán Dörnyei and Alastair Henry).


Zoltán Dörnyei

Integrative Motivation: Sixty Years and Counting

Ali H. Al-Hoorie and Peter D. MacIntyre

Looking Back and Looking Forward

Robert C. Gardner

Part I: Second Language Development / Applied Linguistics

Chapter 1. James P. Lantolf and Merrill Swain: Perezhivanie: The Cognitive–Emotional Dialectic Within the Social Situation of Development

Chapter 2. Tammy Gregersen, Peter D. MacIntyre and Jessica Ross: Extending Gardner's Socio-Educational Model to Learner Well-being: Research Propositions Linking Integrative Motivation and PERMA theory

Chapter 3. Mercè Bernaus: Teachers' and Learners' Motivation in Multilingual Classrooms

Chapter 4. Peter D. MacIntyre, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Nicole MacMillan and Chengchen Li: The Emotional Underpinnings of Gardner's Attitudes and Motivation Test Battery

Part II: Social Psychology / Sociology

Chapter 5. Sara Rubenfeld and Richard Clément : Identity, Adaptation and Social Harmony: A Legacy of the Socio-Educational Model

Chapter 6. Jorida Cila and Richard Lalonde: What's in a Name? Motivations for Baby-naming in Multicultural Contexts

Chapter 7. Bonny Norton: Motivation, Identity, and Investment: A Journey with Robert Gardner

Part III: Historical / Methodological Issues

Chapter 8. Rebecca L. Oxford: Snapshots in Time: Time in Gardner's Theory and Gardner's Theory across Time

Chapter 9. Ema Ushioda: Researching L2 Motivation: Re-evaluating the Role of Qualitative Inquiry, or the 'Wine and Conversation' Approach

Chapter 10. Paul F. Tremblay: Quantitative Methods in Second Language Learning Motivation Research: Gardner's Contributions and Some New Developments

Chapter 11. Jennifer Claro : Identification with External and Internal Referents: Integrativeness and the Ideal L2 Self

Chapter 12. John Edwards: History, Philosophy and the Social Psychology of Language 

Part IV: Discussants

Chapter 13. Phil Hiver and Diane Larsen-Freeman: Motivation: It is a Relational System

Chapter 14. Elaine Horwitz: How Robert C. Gardner's Pioneering Social-Psychological Research Raised New Applied Questions about Second Language Acquisition


Howard Giles

Postgraduate, Research / Professional, Undergraduate
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